India Nationalism Grows
1. In World War I, India sent over a million troops to help out the British. The British was suppose to return the favor by reforming the Indian government.
2. Rowlatt Acts- a rule that the British could put any protester in jail for up to two years without any trial (The Amritsar Massacre).
3. Amritsar Massacre- a commander in Amritsar shot into a group of Hindus and Muslims when they gathered to fast and pray. It killed around 500 Indians and injured over 100 others (Amritsar Massacre).
4. Indians who used to be loyal to the British turned into nationalists demanding for independence (Beck 454).

Amritsar Massacre

Ghandi's Tactics of Nonviolence
1. Mohandas K. Gandhi was a peacemaker and the leader of the independence movement in India. He was born in 1869 and was born in a place under British rule. He experienced first hand the unfair ruling of Britain.
2. The Indian National Congress of India was urged to follow a noncooperation policy with the British government.
3. Civil Disobedience- the refusal to obey certain laws or government demands for the purpose of influence, legislation, or government policy characterized by the employment of such nonviolent techniques as boycotting, picketing, and nonpayment of taxes.
4. -Noncooperation- civil disobedience.
-Boycotts- refusal to buy British goods/pay British taxes, etc.
-Strikes and Demonstrations- protests often led to riots
-The Salt March- a march to the seacoast where Gandhi and many others made their salt.
5. The Salt March- a peaceful march of about 240 miles to the seacoast where Gandhi and his followers produced their own salt to protest against salt taxes. The British would attack the Indian nationalists. Sixty thousand Indians were arrested.


Britain Grants Limited Self- Rule
1. In 1935, the British Parliament passed the Government of India Act.
2. It did not provide total independence but a local self-government and limited democratic elections.
3. There was conflict between the Hindus and Muslims because they had a different view on the future of India if it became independent. The Muslims thought that the Hindus would take over India if it became independent (Hindus outnumbered Muslims).

A Movement Towards Independence
1. In 1939, Britain committed India's soldiers to World War II without consulting India's representatives. This led to intensified Indian resistance.
2. The Indian National Congress was made up of Hindus while the Muslim League was made up of Muslims.
3. The Indian National Congress and the Muslim League fought over the land known as Kashmir which was sacred to both religions.
Muslim League Working Committee (Wikipedia)
Indian National Congress (Wikipedia)

Britain ruled India for nearly 200 years and Indian resistance had grown during this time period. In 1939, Britain sent Indian troops to fight in World War II which stunned the Indian people (Beck 563). Britain tried to create peace by offering to change India's government, but they did not offer independence. Indians also fought amongst each other during this time. India was made up of two main religious groups: Hindus and Muslims. The Hindus formed the Indian National Congress while the Muslims formed the Muslim League. Both groups fought for the right to control India once it gained its independence. The conflict between these two groups continued even after British rule ended.

Freedom Brings Turmoil

1. India gains its independence on August 15, 1947.
2. Britain let India go because it had massive war debts from World War II and it cost too much to maintain and govern India.
3. Muslims and Hindus fought over who would get power once India gained independence.
4. Hindus and Muslims rioted in the city of Calcutta resulting in 5,000 deaths.
5. Britain issued the partition of India on July 16, 1947. This created Pakistan and India.
6. The partition of India forced the Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs to relocate.
7. Hindus and Muslims clashed over Kashmir.
8. They fought over this land because of religious pride.
9. The United Nations issued a cease-fire in Kashmir in 1949, but fighting continues.

Kashmir (Wikipedia)
Soldiers in Kashmir

After World War II, Britain finally decided that they had to let India rule itself. The cost of controlling and ruling India was too much. They created a partition that divided India into many nations (Beck 564). The major ones were India and Pakistan. The partition forced many Indians to relocate in order to live with their religious group. Violence occurred as different religious groups attacked each other during this relocation process. Over 1 million people were killed as they tried to move to their new homes. Riots occurred in Calcutta leading to 5000 death (Markovits). Conflicts also arose over the land north of India called Kashmir. Kashmir's ruler was Hindu, but most of its people were Muslim. Hindus and Muslims fought for Kashmir because of religious pride since the region was sacred to both groups. The United Nations ordered a cease fire in 1949, but fighting continues to this day (Beck 565).

Modern India

• With gaining its independence on August 15, 1947, India became the worlds largest democracy (Beck 565).
• Jawaharlal Nehru was the prime minister of India and greatly moved India toward the future through making peace with other world powers(Jawaharlal Nehru Bio).
• Indira Gandhi was Jawaharlal Nehru's daughter and faced issues relating to Sikh extremists wanting their own independence which
eventually resulted in her death (Medick).
• In 1998 Shri Atai Bihari Vajpayee was elected prime minister (Suo).
• By 2035, India's population is predicted to be around 1.46 billion people (India).
• India and Pakistan have both become nuclear powers (Beck 566).
• In 1974, India exploded the first "peaceful" nuclear device (Beck 566).
• In 1998, Indian officials conducted five underground nuclear tests (Beck 566).
• During India's advancements Pakistan itself had been working on its own nuclear program (Beck 566).

Pakistan Copes with Freedom

• Pakistan actually began as two separate and divided states, East and West Pakistan.
• The differences were the culture, history, language, geography, economies and ethnic background. The only similarity was the Islamic
religion (A Short History).
• A giant cyclone and tidal wave struck East Pakistan and took the lives of about 266,000 people. International aid came to help out, but
West Pakistan slowly moved the aid to the East. This outraged the citizens of East Pakistan (Beck 567).
• On March 26, 1971, East Pakistan declares itself independent and changes its name to Bangladesh.
• Civil War breaks out and India sent troops to help Bangladesh (A Short History).
• Bangladesh wins the civil war.
• When Muhammad Ali Jinnah died, it left Pakistan without a stable leader which left a weak government that often changed.
• Today, Pakistan’s government is under military rule (Pakistan).

Map of Present Day Pakistan
Map of Present Day Pakistan

Bangladesh and Sri Lanka Struggle
• The civil war ruined Bangladesh’s economy and communications system.
• Between the time of Sheik Mujibur Rahman becoming Prime Minister to 2001, Bangladesh has experienced government corruption and
charges of election fraud.
• Bangladesh’s “low-lying” location next to the ocean makes it prone to cyclones and tidal waves. This causes problems because these
immense storms can flood land, which can ruin the crops, take lives, and ruin homes.
• Sri Lanka is a small island off the coast of India.
• It is formerly known as Ceylon.
• Sri Lanka gained its independence from Britain in February of 1948.
• The two main ethnic groups that dominate this region are the Sinhalese (Buddhists) and the Tamils (Hindus).
• A militant group of Tamils has long fought an armed struggle for a separate nation.
• In 1987, India unsuccessfully tried to put an end to the aggression by sending troops.
• The civil war is Sri Lanka is still continuing today (Beck 568-569

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