The Civil War Between the Chinese Nationalists and the Communists and How China Was Split Into Two Nations

Communists vs. Nationalists and World War 2 in China
Who was Mao Zedong?
Birth/Death of Mao Zedong: Mao Zedong was born on December 26, 1893 in a Shaoshan Village in Hunan province.
Education of Mao Zedong: At the age of eight Mao Zedong was sent to a village primary school by his father so that he could learn the fundamental of reading and writing and to study the ancient Chinese classics. He studied the ancient philosophies of Confucious. Mao attending school for the next 5 years, then he was old enough to help his father on their farm at the age of 13.
Political: Mao Zedong's political veiws were communist. During his communist reign the Soviet Union sided with Mao on his political policies (Beck pg. 539). In 1921 Mao and other ended Chinese Communist party in Shanghai. (Arthur Ch. 1)

Who was Jiang Jieshi?
Birth/Death of Jiang Jieshi : Jiang was born on March 18, 1910 and died on Jan 13, 1988 ( Teng-hui)
Political views: Jiang was the nationalist leader during the time period of WWII. Mao was also the leader for the Communist. When the Civil war broke out among China, the Communist ended up winning.

Civil War Resumes
Economic Problems cause Nationalist soldiers to desert to the Communists Army (Red Army).
What did Mao's troops take over in China?
Mao's troops took over China's major cities.
In 1949, People's Republic of China created; Nationalists went to Taiwan . (Beck 538-540)

The Two Chinas Affect The Cold War: The Superpowers React
U.S. supports Nationalist state in Taiwan, called Republic of China.
Soviets and China agree to help each other in event of attack.
U.S. tries to stop Soviet expansion and spread of Communism in Asia because they believed the Communist campaign would take over the world. (Beck 538-540)

China Expands under the Communists
China takes control of Tibet, India and southern Mongolia to spread their influence around the world. To take control they placed their troops in all the regions and even had a brutal assault in Tibet.
When Mao Zedong started his reign of Northern Communist China, he sent troops to Mongolia, India and Tibet. China promised autonomy to Tibet. "Beck 539" When China tightened it's control over Tibet the Dalai Lama went to India. After Tibet tried to revolt China's reign, and the revolt failed, India welcomed Tibetans. because of this China and India grew angry with each other. The two countries fought over undefined borders in 1962. Although the fighting stopped, the resentment remained. "Kort" (Beck 538-540)

Chinese Political Opponents, 1945


Jiang Jieshi
Mao Zedong
Southern China
Area Ruled
Northern China
United States
Foreign Support
Soviet Union
Defeat of Communists
Domestic Policy
National liberation
Weak due to inflation and failing economy
Public Support
Strong due to promised land reform for peasants
Ineffective, corrupt leadership and poor morale
Military Organization
Experienced, motivated guerrilla army
(Beck 538-540)

Jiang Jieshi- Nationalist Leader
Mao Zedong - Communist Leader

Douglas Mac Arthur, et al. Mao Zedong. Pennsylvania: Chelsea House Publisher, 2004.

Karnel, Solomon M. Encyclopedia Americana International Edition. Connecticut: Scholastic Library Publishing Inc., 2004

Kort, Michael G. China under Communism. Connecticut: The Millbrook Press, 1944.

Lee Teng-hui. “Chiang Ching-kuo.” Oxford Reference. 1998. Oxford University Press. 17 May 2009. __< 85.e160&category=__>

Pike, John. “Chinese Civil War (1930s-1940s).” Global Security. 2005. 8 May 2009 <__

Rodger B. Beck, et al. Modern World History: Patterns of Interaction. Illinois: McDougal Littell, 2007.

Unknown. “World War 2 Casualties.” World War 2. 14 May 2009 <__>