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MODERN WORLD HISTORY - Mrs. Chandler (P. 4) 180px-Ger_Inf_Russia_1941_HDSN9902655.JPEG

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The Allies win World War II


Watch Germany Surrenders at EncycloMedia.com


Allies Become Enemies Differing U.S. and Soviet Goals

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Celebration in Moscow

  • ( The Soviets celebrating at Moscow after defeating Germany) (photo above)
  • Before WWII The Soviets and the US relationship were hostile.
  • U.S. is the world's richest and most powerful country after WWII.
  • In WWII the alliance between the Soviets and the U.S. was fairly good. The U.S. sent weapons and supplies to the weakened Soviets to help them with the devastating war. Approximately 11 billion dollars of weapon supply was given to the Soviets.
  • During the war Stalin was so determined to avoid provoking Germany that he ignored western and even his own intelligence services that Hitler was going to attack the U.S.S.R. He hoped that Germany would be exhausted from fighting other nations that they would not attack them. So one June 22, 1941, the Red Army was completely unprepared for the 3 million German troops that invaded Soviet territory.German forces caused immense destruction and altogether about 20 million people perished from various causes. This was eighty times the number of Americans killed.
  • The United States and the Soviets split after the war. Even before the war was over they were slowely splitting apart. ( Roger Beck, P.531
  • The relations between the US and Soviet Union were very low after WWII, but despite their differences; they temporarily put them aside to join the 48 other countries to form the United Nations.(Beck 532)

"The charter for the new peacekeeping organization established a large body called the General Assembly. There, each UN member nation could cast its vote on a broad range of issues. An 11-member body called the Security Council had the real power to investigate and settle disputes, though. Its five permanent members Britain, China, France, the United States, and the Soviet Union. Each could veto any Security Council action. This provision was intended to prevent any members of the Council of voting as a bloc to override the others." (Beck 532)


Eastern Europe's Iron Curtain; Soviets Build a Buffer

  • Stalin installs Communist governments in several countries.
  • The countries are: Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Poland & Yugoslavia.
  • Truman urged free elections in Eastern Europe.
  • Stalin refused.In 1946, Stalin says Communism and Capitalism cannot co-exist.
*Buffer: A wall of protection.


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An Iron Curtain Divides
  • Germany is divided into East and West.
  • Communist governments were established in the East.
  • Democratic governments were established in the West.
  • Winston Churchill's phrase "Iron Curtain" came to represent Europe's division into mostly Democratic Western Europe & Communist Eastern Europe.
  • The curtain also divided warsaw pact and NATO countries.
  • Created travel restrictions, communication barriers, and heavy censorship.
  • Warsaw countries include the Soviet Union, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania.
  • NATO countries include Belgium Canada, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, parts of Germany, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxenbourg, Slovakia, Spain, Turky, the US, and the UK.

*Winston Churchill presented his Sinews of Peace, (the Iron Curtain Speech) at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri on March 5, 1946.


WINSTON CHURHILL'S "IRON CURTAIN" SPEECH (LINK) -- FULL SPEECH

Iron Curtain: "A major goal of the Soviet Union was to shield itself from another invasion from the west." (Beck 533)
Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, and Albania separated the Soviet Union from Western Europe.

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East/West German Border. 1987
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Attack - Soviet Soldiers
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Soviet Northern fleet, attacking Nazi submarines in the Barents Sea
.



*VIDEO LINK: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: post-World War II domination" class="wiki_link_ext">The Soviet Union begins to dominate eastern Europe following World War II. ----


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Why did the U.S. and the Soviets split after the war?


Differing U.S. and Soviet Goals


"Despite agreement at Yalta and their presence on the Security Council, the United States and the Soviet Union split sharply after the war. The war had affected them very differently. The United States, the world's richest and most powerful country, suffered 400,000 deaths. But its cities and factories remained intact. The Soviet Union had at least 50 times as many fatalities. One in four Soviets was wounded or killed. Also, many Soviet cities were demolished. These contrasting situations, as well as political and economic differences, affected the two countries' postwar goals." (Beck 532)


(See Superpower Aims in Europe chart below)




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Germany was divided into four zones of Allied military occupation: American, French, British, and Soviet.

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Germany was divided into the west and east because of the "Iron Curtain"



What were the differences of East and West Germany?


  • The west established a Communist Government
  • The East established a Democratic Government
  • East Germany was established as a Stalin-style Socialist state. It became a member of the Warsaw Pact and came to have one of the most advanced economies and standard of living of the Soviet-bloc states.
  • West Germany was recognized as an independent nation in 1955
  • East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, and Albania (until 1960 when it aligned with China).



Communist
Capitalism
the state controlled all property and economic activity
Private citizens control almost all economic activity.
Establishes a totalitarian government with no opposing parties
People Elect the president and congress from competing political parties




Superpower Aims in Europe



United States
  • Encourage democracy in other countries to help prevent the rise of Communist governments.
  • Gain access to raw materials and markets to fuel booming industries.
  • Rebuild European governments to promote stability and create new markets.
  • Reunite Germany to stabilize it and increase the security of Europe.
Soviet Union
  • Encourage communism in other countries as part of a worldwide worker's revolution.
  • Rebuild its war-ravaged economy using Eastern Europe's industrial equipment and raw materials.
  • Control Eastern Europe to protect Soviet borders and balance the U.s. influence in Western Europe.
  • Keep Germany divided to prevent its waging war again.
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Soviet military build up at the expense of domestic development.

WORKS CITED
d“Attack. Soviet Soldiers.” Katardat.org.
http://www.katardat.org/marxuniv/2002-SUWW2/Images/images02.html.

Beck, Roger B.,et al. Modern World History:Patters of Interaction.
Evanston: HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY, 2007.

"Cold War." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 07 May 2009.
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/125110/Cold-War.

"Iron Curtain - MSN Encarta." MSN Encarta: Online Encyclopedia, Dictionary, Atlas, and Homework. 2009. 14 May 2009 <http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761573676/iron_curtain.html>.

Kries, Steven. "Winston Churchill's "Iron Curtain Speech" (1946)." The History Guide--Main. 13 May 2004. 14 May 2009 <http://www.historyguide.org/europe/churchill.html>.

"NATO - Partner countries." NATO - Homepage. 14 May 2009. 15 May 2009 <http://www.nato.int/cps/en/SID-6CAC9E6C-809BF682/natolive/51288.htm>.

"NATO: New 'Iron Curtain' Upon Europe" Truth in Media Home Page - Bob Djurdjevic, Founder. 14 May 2009 <http://www.truthinmedia.org/Bulletins99/tim99-3-4.html>.

Rose, Brian. "The Lost Border." Brian Rose Homepage. 14 May 2009 <http://www.brianrose.com/lostborder.htm>.

Rosenberg, Matt. "Warsaw Pact Countries." Geography Home Page - Geography at About.com. 2009. 14 May 2009 <http://geography.about.com/od/lists/qt/warsawpact.htm>.

Simic, Ivan. "World War II: 63 Years After." Op-Ed Contributor 26 Nov 2008 Web.8 May 2009.
http://newsblaze.com/story/20081126191840simi.nb/topstory.html.

"Soviet military build up..." TRCS - Soviet union08 WikiSpace.
https://trcs.wikispaces.com/Soviet+union08


"Soviet Northern fleet attacking Nazi submarines in the Barents Sea."
http://www.katardat.org/marxuniv/2002-SUWW2/Images/images02.html.

"The Allies win the war". The Allies win the war. Classroom schools.
http://classroom.jc-schools.net/ce/ss-ch8-5.ppt.

"Warsaw Pact - a brief description." Warsaw Life. Warsaw Travel Guide. Restaurants Shops Pubs and Apartments Warsaw Hotels. Poland. 14 May 2009 http://www.warsawlife.com/poland/warsaw-pact.

"World war II: Wartime Alliance". World war II: Wartime Alliance.
<http://www.ibiblio.org/expo/soviet.exhibit/wartime.html>.

"World war II". World war II. Wikimedia Foundation Inc. May 14 2009.
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_II>.

Ziegler, Charles E. The History of Russia. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999.








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