Please push play... Allied Plan for Victory Allied Strategy on Two Fronts

ikelarge.jpg
General Eisenhower giving a speech to the soliders before D-day.













http://www.army.mil/d-day/message.html

The man in charge of the planning and leading of D-Day was General Eisenhower of the United State, although the forces he commanded were made up of more than one country besides America, the naval and air forces were commanded by him.


D-Day


The day of June 6, 1944 was D-Day. The day of the Allied forces’ all out attack on Normandy’s beaches, in Northwest Europe. The person in charge of D-Day was General Eisenhower of the United States with a goal to, “drive the Germans from France and overthrow the National Socialist Regime.” There were two phases to d-day: an air assault from the American, British and Canadian air troops after midnight; followed by an attack from the beach. Unfortunately for the allied troops, the Kriegsmarine and German army were extremely well hidden, and so the Allied forces used ‘subsidiary attacks’ under the code names Operation Taxable and Glimmer to lure the Germans out of their hiding spots. D-Day, also called Operation Overlord was the largest single invasion of all time, including over 160,000 thousand soldiers and 195,700 naval personal involved in the attack. A total of 5,000 ships and 13,000 aircraft were used. The major landings on the coast of Normandy’s beaches were divided into five sectors under the code names: Utah, Omaha, Gold, Juno, and Sword.

D-Day was actually a code word to confuse Germans about the actually date the Allied force's attack on the Northwest coast of Europe, Normandy beach.
D-Day was actually a code word to confuse Germans about the actually date the Allied force's attack on the Northwest coast of Europe, Normandy beach.


d02337t.jpg
Omaha Beach: The toughest one to capture out of the five on the coast of Normandy Beach.

Omaha Beach was one of the five major beach that were to be captured in the D-Day campaign. The other four were Utah, Gold, Juno, and Sword. Omaha was the most intensely fought battle due to the disadvantage the Americans had in the Normandy territory.

Photograph:Men of the 16th Infantry Regiment seek shelter from German machine-gun fire behind “Czech hedgehog” beach obstacles, Easy Red sector, Omaha Beach, on D-Day, June 6, 1944.
Photograph:Men of the 16th Infantry Regiment seek shelter from German machine-gun fire behind “Czech hedgehog” beach obstacles, Easy Red sector, Omaha Beach, on D-Day, June 6, 1944.

http://www.britannica.com/dday/art-40274

Victory in Europe (VE Day)


Operation Overlord,D-Day, didn’t end until the Allied forces established a secure foothold on the Normandy beach and crossed the River of Seine which wasn’t accomplished until a couple of months later on the day of August 19, 1944, this day is known as Victory in Europe, also known as VE Day.
This was the significance of D-Day. Victory in Europe meant the end of World War II, and the end of the reign of “The Third Reich,” led by the German Nazi leader, Adolf Hitler. Although, this major victory wasn’t accomplished until nearly a year after D-Day, on May 8, 1945, it’s victory called for a celebration around the world.



North African Campaign


In Hitler's quest for world dominance, he sent his army across the Mediterranean Sea to North Africa. The German Army, led by General Erwin Rommel, looked like they would have an easy time taking control of North Africa. Especially after a quick victory at Tobruk and mobilization towards Egypt. But due to lack of supplies and an arrogant army staff the advance through Africa was stalled (The North African Campaign 2003). In November of 1942, the US Army landed in French Morocco and entered World War II. This Army was led by General Dwight D. Eisenhower the future American president. Helping the American Army in North Africa were the British. General Montgomery was the head of command for this army and would be the general in charge of the important victory that would be had at El Alamein. This would be the decisive victory for the Allies in World War II that would force Germany out of Africa (The North African Campaign 2003). Soon after this battle followed the final blow to Hitler's army. In April of 1943 the Allies pushed Germany to the sea in the battle at Libya. A total of 275,000 German soldiers became POWs after this battle.





external image apc.gif

- German tank that was stuck in the mud in Northern Africa and wasn't dug out until 1970.
http://www.geocities.com/Pentagon/Quarters/7414/

external image brn2.jpg
-These are Allied infantry in Northern Africa.

http://www.geocities.com/Pentagon/Quarters/7414/

external image 11.jpg
- Map of the area in North Africa where all the fighting during World War II took place.


http://www.geocities.com/Pentagon/Quarters/7414/


The Battle of Stalingrad


This battle was a struggle for Germany as it was the turning point for the war in Russia. Sure the Germans had a good hold of this extremely industrial city named after the ruler Stalin. Stalingrad was easy to keep during the summer, but they were not prepared for the Russian winter as the U.S.S.R. had surrounded the city and German officers were asking Hitler to retreat but Hitler would have none of it as he wanted to hold Stalingrad. On the other end of the spectrum, Stalin did not want to lose the city named after him. (R.B,2005) During the Russian winter, the Germans had lost all supply lines and had no protection from the cold because men would get extreme frostbite, which caused death in some cases. The Germans were losing the war in Russia and also being pushed back to the east toward the ultimate goal- Berlin, Germany.

stalingrad-z112.jpg- Stalingrad was 98% percent destroyed after the battle



<http:/katardat.org/marxuniv/2002-SUWW2/Images/
images06-stalingrad.html>



stalingrad-275.jpg
<http:/katardat.org/marxuniv/2002-SUWW2/Images/
images06-stalingrad.html> Sergeant Pavlov in front of the "Pavlov's house". The sergeant and a handfull of soldiers held this house for several months.

The Invasion of Italy

external image 300px-Invasionofitaly1943.jpg
The Allies way to attack the Germans at the invasion of Italy.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allied_invasion_of_Italy

After the Åfrican campaign the allies invaded Sicily. It was only defended by 12 divisions. They won Operation Husky as it was nick-named. After the capturing of Sicily, the Italians overthrew Mussolini (the one who wanted in the war with Germany). Then Italy signed an armistice with the Allies. After the signing, Italy was technically neutral but sided with the allies. Germany anticipated this and retreated to the middle of Italy and held what was called the Gustav line. After many attempts over four months to break through this line the Allies finally did in May 1944. Then Germany retreated to Northern Italy to defend the Po Valley, the last barrier until the allies got into southern Italy. (OPERATION HUSKY, Richmond, The Invasion of Italy, Feldman)

Battle of the Bulge


The Battle of the Bulge was the last effort of Germany to break the Allied lines in the Ardennes (a dense forest and mountains in Belgium and Luxembourg). The plan for Germany was a three-pronged attack. The Sixth Panzer Army of tanks was to attack and capture Antwerp, a very strategical port which the Allies were receiving their supplies. The next step was for the Fifth Panzer Army to attack the center of the American forces, capture the road of St. Vith, and then move on to capture Brussels. Finally, the Seventh Infantry Army was ordered to attack the southern flank of the U.S. in order to create a buffer zone. The buffer zone was to prevent the U.S. from counter-attacking the Fifth Panzer Army. (Trueman)

Here you can see the "bulge" in the Allied lines in yellow-hence the name Battle of the Bulge
Here you can see the "bulge" in the Allied lines in yellow-hence the name Battle of the Bulge

http://www.defenselink.mil/home/Specials/bulge/images/indexb_10a.jpg



American soldiers of the 75th Airborne fighting in the Ardennes
American soldiers of the 75th Airborne fighting in the Ardennes

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Battle_of_the_Bulge.jpg

Victory in the Pacific

An American flamethrower at Iwo Jima
An American flamethrower at Iwo Jima

external image magnify-clip.png
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Flamethrower-iwo-jima-194502.jpg
The battle of Iwo Jima was one of the most bloody during WWII. The plan was for the Allies to storm the beaches, must like the invasion of Normandy, and eventually take the island. However, the Japanese had heavily fortified defenses and a well thought out plan. The volcanic ash from the 550 foot volcanic Mt. Suribachi made it impossible for the Allied soldiers to dig foxholes for protection, thus leaving them sitting ducks for the hidden japanese machine gunners. (Bradley, The Land Battle) Confusion was apparent on the beaches of Iwo Jima. The Japanese were mostly underground or hidden and an Allied soldier rarely saw a Japanese soldier alive. The Japanese commanders ordered their soldiers to kill atleast ten Americans for every one of them, thinking that if the Allied casualties were high enough, they would not try to invade Japan. (Bradley, Japanese Iwo Strategy). The Japanese fought ferociously, leaving over 26,000 U.S. troops killed, missing, or wounded in action.(Flowers, Iwo Jima-The Cost)


One of the most famous pictures of WWII, this shows Americans raising the second flag after capturing Iwo Jima
One of the most famous pictures of WWII, this shows Americans raising the second flag after capturing Iwo Jima

http://www.iwojima.com/raising/lflaga2.gif



Works Cited



Ambrose, Stephen E. New History of World War II. New York: Penguin Group, 1997.
Army. "D-Day." Army. U.S Army. 8 May 2009 <http://www.army.mil/d-day/>.

BBC. "Victory in Europe." BBC-History. 2004. BBC. 7 May 2009
<http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/veday_germany_01.shtml>.

Beck, Roger B, et al. Modern World History. USA: McDougal Littell, 2005.

Bradley, John H. The Battle 15 May 2009 http://www.iwojima.com/battle/battlec.htm

"Erwin Rommel." Answers.com. 2009. WikiAnswers.com. 7 May 2009
<http://www.answers.com/topic/
erwin-rommel#North_Africa_1941.E2.80.931943>.

Feldman, George. “The Invasion of Italy.” World War II. 2nd ed. 2000.

"Invasion of Italy"May 12,2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Invasion_of_Italy May 13, 2009

“The Invasion of Italy September 9, 1943 - May 8, 1945.” World War II Multimedia database. 7 May 2009 <http://www.worldwar2database.com/‌html/‌italy43_45.htm>.


Flowers, Mark Iwo Jima-The Cost 15 May 2009.<http://www.ww2gyrene.org/Spotlight4_thecost.htm>

Keegan, John. The Second World War. N.p.: Penguin Book, 1989.

"The North African Campaign ." Brief History of WWII. 2001-2003. 6 May 2009
<http://www.worldwariihistory.info/WWII/North-Africa.html>.

“ ~ OPERATION HUSKY - SICILY - 9/‌10 JULY 1943 ~.” combined operations. 12 May 2009 <http://www.combinedops.com/‌husky.htm>.
Richmond. “Invasion of Italy.” National Archives. 14 May 2009 <http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/‌cabinetpapers/‌themes/‌invasion-of-italy.htm>.


Richmond. “Invasion of Italy.” National Archives. 14 May 2009 <http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/‌cabinetpapers/‌themes/‌invasion-of-italy.htm>.

Sekula, Arthur. World War II North African Campaign . 1998. 8 May 2009
<http://www.geocities.com/Pentagon/Quarters/7414/>.

Stalingrad. 8 May 2009 <http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RUSstalingrad.htm>.

Stalingrad. 11 May 2009 <http:/katardat.org/marxuniv/2002-SUWW2/Images/
images06-stalingrad.html>.

Trueman, Chris. Battle of the Bulge 8 May 2009. <http://www.historylearningcite.co.uk/battle_of_the_bulge.htm

Trueman, Chris. The Battle of Stalingrad. 2000-2009. 7 May 2009 <http://historylearningsite.co.uk/
battle_of_stalingrad.htm>.