The Allies Strike Back and the Stunning Raid
U.S. bombers attack Tokyo and other Japanese cities in April 1942?
Although the raid does little damage, it shows?

In April 18, 1942 U.S. bombers attacked Tokyo ("Beck, Roger, et al. Modern World History: Patterns of Interaction. Evanston, IL. McDougal Little. 2007") and other Japanese cities like Nagoya. The aircraft carrier that was carrying the planes was called Hornet. There were 16 B-25 Mitchell's taking off in the morning around eight o' clock. Lt. Col. James H. Doolittle led the raid. One of the reasons for this bombing was because the U.S. wanted revenge for Pearl Harbor. This was not a very big bombing but it was an important psychological point to the Americans because it showed that Japan was vulnerable("Beck, Roger, et al. Modern World History: Patterns of Interaction. Evanston, IL. McDougal Little. 2007"). It raised the American's confidence and lowered the Japanese's. This bombing turned the tide for the war.
B-25B bombers on the deck of the USS Hornet, prepared to take off, 18 April 1942
B-25B bombers on the deck of the USS Hornet, prepared to take off, 18 April 1942


Jimmy Doolittle
Jimmy Doolittle was the leader of the raid. He enlisted in World War 1 and he served by being a flight instructor for the United States of America. He was born in Alameda, California on December 14, 1896. He was awarded the Medal of Honor, he led the first raid that took place in the main lands of Japan. He left the military on a leave and then returned right before WWII began. He retired from the air force on Fed. 28, 1959 but still served his country as chairman of the board of Space Technology Laboratories. He died on September 27, 1993.


The Allies Turn the Tide

~What was the significance of the Battle of Coral Sea?
The Japanese were planning to take over the entire pacific in WWII. They were going to attack Port Moresby, New Guinea. New Guinea could have been a very important land base and they could have taken over Australia. If they took Australia then the Japanese would have elimanated Austarlia from the war and they could have used Austarlia as a large air base capable of reaching most of the Pacific. The Japanese had a very large Navy and so did the United States so whoever won this battle would win or or lose the entire Pacific.(Battle of the Coral Sea 2000)
The battleplan for both sides
The battleplan for both sides

~What was the new type of naval warfare used in the Battle of Coral Sea?
The new type of naval warfare was the use of aircraft carriers. Aircraft carriers could transport hundreds of war planes each. they were very important because for long range missions across the ocean the planes could be carried way closer to their target and be in better range for attacking. In sea battles the two fleets can normally sea eachother but because of the aircraft carriers neither fleet saw eachother and the entire battle was fought using planes.(Springer)
The USS Lexington during WWII
The USS Lexington during WWII

~Where did the battle take place?
The fighting took place in the sea southwest of the Solomon islands and east of New Guinea. The Japnaese were fighting for Port Moresby, New Guinea because if they could set up a base there then they could have kicked Australia out of the and been able to take over the entire South Pacific.
(Battle of the Coral Sea 2000)

~How was he battle started?
In WWII the United States had a far superior communications and intelligence group than the Japanese and they were able to eavesdrop on Japanese radio and overheard Japan's plans to take over Australia. The Japanese were hoping on pushing Australia out of the war, but the US and Australia were allies so the United State sent their Navy to protect Austarlia.(Battle of the Coral Sea 2000)(Brittanica 2009)
A Lorenz machine that was used by the Allies to break messages
A Lorenz machine that was used by the Allies to break messages

~Which country was victorious in the battle and what was the damage done by both sides?
It was like a defeat for the Japanese because they never thought they could lose after attacking America's fleet 5 months earlier at Pearl Harbor and everything was relatively easy before that point.(Battle of the Coral Sea 2000)

They lost a big part of their fleet including two of their aircraft carriers, the Shoho was sunk and the Shokaku was damaged so badly it was forced to retire from action. Japan was also unlucky because just a month after this battle they were involved in the Battle of Midway in the midst of rebuilding their fleet which is a reason for their defeat.(Battle of the Coral Sea 2000)
United States planes attacking the Japanese fleet
United States planes attacking the Japanese fleet

The American fleet was also badly damaged by losing the aircraft carrier Lexington and the aircraft carrier Yorktown was forced to retire from action. (Brittanica 2009)

Crew of USS Lexington abandoning ship.
Crew of USS Lexington abandoning ship.

Battle of Midway

Japanese send powerful fleet to capture what?

Japanese send a powerful fleet to capture Midway Island. Midway Island is 1,500 miles west of Hawaii, this is the location of an important American Airfield. Thanks to allies the Americans knew there was a huge fleet of Japanese planes coming towards them so they could prepare for battle.
(Battle of Midway 2000)
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What was the significance of the Battle of Midway?

The Japanese had been attacking and winning battle after battle. They also had more troops, planes, and ships that helped them continue their raid. The significance of the Battle of Midway was that the Americans changed the tide of the war in the Pacific by stopping Japan from continuing there raid, and destroying 332 Japanese planes. Eventually causing Japan to withdraw from the attack. In the end the Battle of Midway ended up being the most decisive single naval battle in U.S. History. They had accomplished sinking four large Japanese carrier's. (Battle of Midway 2000)

Dive bombers from the USS Hornet
Dive bombers from the USS Hornet


An Allied Offensive and MacArthur's Plan

Who was Douglas MacArthur?

Answer- Douglas MacArthur was the general of the Army of the United States in 1930. MacArthur commanded the 42nd division with the temporary rank of Brigadier General for France in World War 1. He also help command the Philippine Army. In World War 2, he was appointed to field marshall for the Philippine Army. MacArthur came up with a strategy called island hopping. Island hopping is when the U.S. would capture certain islands in the Pacific Ocean to get in range of bombing the Japanese.

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Douglas MacArthur


What did it mean to "island hop" past strongholds and attack?

Answer- After the battle of Midway, the Untied States counter back with a attack known as island hopping. The main idea is to capture certain islands in the pacific ocean so that they can be in range to bomb the Japanese. This was lead by Douglas MacArthur. Douglas MacArthur was the general of the United States at the time. MacArthur battle through islands and making the Japanses surrendering each island and getting closer to Japan. The islands that were capture by the U.S was the Solomon Islands, Gilbert Islands, Aleutian Islands, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa. On August 6th, 1945, the United States drop the atomic bomb "Little Boy", over Hiroshima Japan. Killing around 70,000 people from the blast, heat, and radiation effects.
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The map above shows a map of island hopping



What was the significance of the Battle of Guadalcanal?

Answer- The battle of Guadalcanal took place at Solomon Islands which is northeastern of Australia in 1942. U.S. Marines landed on the island on August 7th. The island was humid and all jungle. With these two effects going on, it was importain to capture certain areas of the island. If the Japanese took over the island, then they would have control over the sea routes between Australia and America. But if the United States captured the island, then they could protect Australia from the Japanese. Also they could build up Australia for a massive attack on the Japanese. The United States' plan was to secure the beach and head inland. However, many of the soldiers didn't have experience in combat. So they were sent to North Carolina for training. So most of the men were in North Carolina training while the other soldiers were in combat. Luckily then the Marines landed on the island, there wasn't any fighting for the first 24 hours. On August 8th, they made contact with the Japanese. After months of fighting, the Japanese withdrawn the island. 1500 American soldiers died and 25000 Japanese soldiers died on the island and more at sea.
guad.jpg
U.S soldiers storming the beach on Guadalcanal



Multiple choice

What city in Japan did the U.S bomb in 1942 and why?

A. Tokyo, because it was part of a strategy to weaken.
B. Hiroshima, because to get revenge from Pearl Harbor.
C. Okinawa, because Okinawa held most of the Japanese soldiers.
D. Tokyo, because to get revenge from Pearl Harbor.


What was the new type of naval warfare?

A. Torpedoes.
B. Destroyer Ships.
C. Aircraft Carriers.
D. Atomic Bombs.


The Japanese send a powerful fleet to what?

A. Hawaii
B. Midway island
C. Australia
D. Guadalcanal


Who was Douglas MacArthur?

A. Soldier
B. President of the United States during the war.
C. General
D. none of the above.

Answers from multiple choice: D, C, B, C


Work Cited

"1942 Doolittle Raid on Japan" Olive-Drab. http://www.olive-drab.com/od_history_ww2_stories_1942doolittle.php

"Battle of Midway." 25 July, 2000 http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/wwii-pac/midway/midway.htm

"Beck, Roger, et al. Modern World History: Patterns of Interaction. Evanston, IL. McDougal Little. 2007"

"General of the Army Douglas MacArthur, U.S. Army, (1880-1964)." Naval Historical Center. [[http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/pers-us/uspers- m/macarthr.htm]]

"Island Hopping, Wars and Battles, 1942-1945, Pacific Theater, World War 2." Travel and Histroy. http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1671.html

"The Battle of Guadalcanal." 2000-2009. http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/battle_of_guadalcanal.htm

"Battle of the Coral Sea." 25 July, 2000 http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/wwii-pac/coralsea/coralsea.htm


"Battle of the Coral Sea." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 18 May. 2009 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/137119/Battle-of-the-Coral-Sea>.

Spinger, Emialiano. "The Battle of the Coral Sea" http://history.sandiego.edu/gen/st/~michaelm/coral1.html 18 May. 2009