Group Members: Courtney Kobashigawa, Katie Conner, Sylvia Mckinster, Chad Berberick, Logan Williams

Resistant Movements Against the Nazis


Table of Contents

Resistant Movements Against the Nazis Ghettos Deportation 1933 Boycott on Jewish Businesses Nuremberg Laws Kristallnacht Camps The Final Solution Work Cited












Ghettos


Ghetto is a term that many people use today. Many don't realize where this word originated from or what exactly it was. As you read this, you may be asking yourself how the use of the word "ghetto" has changed. A ghetto was an isolated Jewish area. Living conditions were harsh and often lead to death.


Starvation in the Warsaw ghetto
Starvation in the Warsaw ghetto

Starvation in the Warsaw ghetto

Why did the Nazis put Jews in ghettos?

The Nazis put Jews in ghettos because Hitler found that he could get rid of Jews through emigration. Hitler, believing that Germans were a superior race did not settle with this. He ordered that all Jews in his controlling countries be put into segregated Jewish areas. Thousands of Jews were placed in tight living quarters. Nazis hoped that Jews would die from starvation or disease. They were ultimately placed here temporarily so when the German's found a solution to the "Jewish problem" it could be carried out. Because Jews were in one area, it made it efficient for the German's to gather and send large groups to concentration camps. Nazis soon found that Jews weren't dying fast enough for their liking. This eventually led to the creation of concentration camps and killing centers which could wipe out large amounts of people at a time.

Where were ghettos established?

The Nazis established ghettos in numerous places which varied in size. The largest was the Warsaw ghetto located in Poland. Warsaw held about 400,000 Jews . The second largest was Lodz also located in Poland slightly southwest of Warsaw. Lodz held approximately 1600,000 Jews. It was established in northern Lodz because there was already a large Jewish population there. It was about 4.3 square kilometers in size. Other locations included The Soviet Union, the Baltic States, Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Hungary. They were established in major European cities were Jewish population was high.

Map of Poland
Map of Poland

Map of Poland


Life in the Ghettos

Imagine living in a small crowded room, with no bedding, no windows, and poor sanitation. These were only some of the living conditions that Jews hard to endure in the ghettos. Jews were only allowed to bring a small bag of belongings. They couldn't possess any valuables, if they were caught with money or jewelry the penalty was potentially death. This was only one of the many rules that the Nazis had.
What did a ghetto look like? Ghettos were enclosed Jewish areas often surrounded by barbed wire fences and brick walls. They were heavily guarded with military personnel so that Jews couldn't escape or sneak things in. Dead bodies were found on the streets along with other trash and human waste. Disease was everywhere. Life in the ghettos started out rough but grew worse at a rapid pace. At first Jews tried to live a normal life as best as they could. They did the things that they did before they entered the ghettos but soon many grew desperate and some even bribed guards for food and others tried to smuggle it in. Malnutrition and starvation were two re-occurring problems. The German's hoped that most Jews would die of starvation. Nazis used food as a weapon by keeping food rations at starvation level. As more and more Jews were brought into these already cramped ghettos starvation grew worse. Jews had to perform back-breaking labor. Many couldn't work to the best of their ability and often couldn't complete their task because of malnutrition. This was a sign of disobedience in the eyes of the Nazis. As a result of disobedience, Jews were shot or beaten to death.
Young boys in the Warsaw ghetto
Young boys in the Warsaw ghetto
Young boys in the Warsaw ghetto


Overcrowding was another major problem. Jews lived in close quarters, often three or more people stayed in one bunk. Because there were so many people in such a small area, many were prone to disease. Typhus and tuberculosis were two diseases that were present. Lice lived among the people as well. During the winters ghettos were unheated and lacked fire wood, many froze to death.

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external image history_of_the_holocaust_3.jpg

Deportation


What happened to Jew in the Netherlands?

May 9-10, 1940, Germans troops invaded the Netherlands. The Dutch army surrendered on May 14, 1940. Jews attempted to escape from and fled to France which was southward. Many also fled to Spain, Portugal, and Switzerland. Some committed suicide and young children were killed by their parents. Jews were segregated from the rest of the Dutch population and sent to concentration camps and labor camps. Those that were caught trying to escape were sentenced to death.

What did the government of Sweden and Denmark do to help the Jews?


Georg Ferdinand Duckwitz(Nazi Party member) was sent as a Trade Attaché to the German Embassy in Copenhagen, Germany. When he learned of the plans from the Nazi governor of Denmark that the Nazi occupying government was planning on deporting Danish Jews he informed the Danish government. He then flew to Stockholm to secretly meet with Sweden's Prime Minister Per Albin Hanssen. Duckwitz returned to Copenhagen with a promise: if Denmark's Jews reached neutral Sweden they would be accepted as refugees. In result of this, the Danish government was able to save 7,000 Dutch Jews by hiding or smuggling them into Sweden. This was about 99% of the Dutch Jew population.


How did Italy resist Nazi plans for Jews?

Although Italy and Germany were allies, Italy did not willingly participate with genocide or deportation plans on Italian territory. This caused thousands of Jews to escape from German occupied territory to Italian territory. Throughout this time, both Spain and Italy remained as neutral lands allowing Jews to escape to both of these countries.

Jewish resistance and The Warsaw Uprising

On April 19, 1943 the most famous Jewish resistance movement took place at the Warsaw ghetto. About 750 Jews came together to form an armed revolt when they heard rumors that the German's were deporting the remaining Jews to the Treblinka killing center. As German SS and police entered the ghetto, members of the revolt group along with others attacked Germans with Molotov Cocktails, hand grenades, and other small arms. The German's were shocked by the resistance and the Jews were able to hold out for a month. On May 16 the fighting ended. More than 56,000 jews were captured , about 2,000 were shot. The remainders were deported to killing centers and concentration camps.

Many Jews resisted the Nazis in nonviolent ways. Thousands of young Jews escaped from ghettos and hid in forest. They joined partisans to harass German officers. Resistance also took form of aid and rescue. Parachutist organized resistance to the Germans by aiding allie and helping the Jews in hiding. Spiritual resistance was also a form of non-violent resistance. Some attempted to preserve their history although the Germans were trying to eradicate the Jews from human memory. Some secretly published underground newspapers, collected and hid important documents. They also continued to observe religious holidays and rituals. Students smuggled books and manuscripts into ghettos and organized underground libraries. One underground library in Czestochowa, Poland served to more than 1,000 readers.

What happened to Dutch Jews in the Netherlands?

By 1943, the German's had wiped out almost the entire Jewish population in northeastern Europe. They did this through deportation (forcibly removed your country.) Out of all the German occupied countries of western Europe, Dutch Jews were the most effected. In only a year the Germans were able to round up Jews in massive hunts across the Netherlands. Most were deported to Auschwitz in Poland. About 107,000-140,000 Jews were deported out of the Netherlands. By 1943, 50,000 Jews, some escaped from Belgium, were deported.

From what other European countries did the Nazis try to take Jews?
German's attempted to take Jews from Finland, Norway, and Denmark. They had trouble rounding up Jews due to resistance from local governments. In southeastern Europe, Nazis used force to capture Jews in Solanika, Greece. They captured approximately 50,000 Jews and sent them to killing centers in Poland. During the months of March, April, and May of 1943 more than 42,000 Greek Jews were sent to death camps.


How did a riot in Berlin successfully resist Nazi plans to deport Jews?
In 1943, German officials attempted to deport Jews to concentration camps. These were the last group of Jews in Germany. Why weren't they deported earlier? Many of whom were men, were married to Aryan women did not get deported. Before they were deported their wives started an extreme riot in Berlin. German officials decided to release the men.

1933 Boycott on Jewish Businesses

The Boycott of Jewish Businesses happened at the beginning of Hitler's dictatorship and was done by the Nazi's. The riot took place It was ordered by Hitler and served two purposes.
What were the two main goals of the boycott?

The two main goals of the boycott were to discriminate against the Jewish people and to get the German people not to buy from their shops, eventually forcing bankruptcy. However most Germans ignored it.

How did the boycott impact the jewish community?
The boycott impacted the Jewish community because there were a lot of laws following. Laws not allowing Jews to hold a position in the government and only letting a certain amount of Jews into German public schools.

Describe the different ways in which Jews and non-Jews in Germany responded to the boycott.
Afterward the Jews were both shocked and depressed but the German-Jews were untouched.

How successful was the boycott?
The boycott was not very successful and only lasted one day. Most Germans did not listen to the Nazi's outside the shops and continued to shop at the stores. However this did start the nationwide campaign against Jews in Germany.

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Nuremberg Laws

Between 1933 and 1935 what were some of the Anti-Jewish actions Nazis and German supporters took?

Around the 1930’s Germany had a very strict policy when it came to Jews participating in many things. All Jews had to wear a yellow star. Jews could not have jobs. All Jewish children had to unenroll public schools and attend Jewish school. Jews had to have a permit to travel or move. Jews were were not permitted to drive cars. They had to have the letter J on their identity card. Jews were not permitted to play sports or ride bicycles, obtain a fishing license. Or use the phone.
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How were German subjects and citizens different?

A Subject belonged to the protective union of the German Reich. A citizen was of German or a kindred blood and was loyal to the German kind.

How did the Jewish Press contribute to resist the Nuremberg laws?

During the Holocaust, Jews tried to resist the Nuremberg Laws by protesting and fighting for their rights. There were many artifacts and footages taken to get a point across to society. They wanted to destroy many things like the unfair laws and stop all Anti-Jewish actions taking place. Also they wanted to destroy the Nazis for putting them in such a tragic position.


Kristallnacht



What was kristallnacht?
Kristallnacht (also called the night of broken glass) was a program against German Jews. On November 9th and 10th gangs of young Nazi vandalized Jewish neighborhoods and broke windows, burned synagogs and looted homes and stores. 101 synagogs were destroyed and 7500 Jewish businesses were destroyed. 26000 Jews were arrested and Jews were beaten and 91 died. German officials called this program "Sponranious outbursts" but did not discourage them.

What happened to Jews who resisted?
The anti-Jewish actions increased, and deportation orders were called in. They were arrested, some beaten or killed. If they had formed a group, such as the Zionist organization, were exterminated

What did 78,000 Jews do in response to Kristallnacht?
After Kristallnacht, during the first 8 months 78,000 Jews left Germany, which was the largest number in a single year since 1933

By 1939, why was it difficult for Jews to leave Germany?
Most countries were limiting the number of Immigrants that they allowed in the countries. U.S. wouldn't accept more than 27,000 immigrants annually Great Britain issued the British white paper, a document that limited Jewish immigration to Palestine, which England controlled. Argentina, Mexico, Costa Rica, and Brazil had taken approximately 80,000 Jews but there resources ere being depleted.

Discuss the sailing of the St. Louis in May 1939. How many were on board? Where did they go? What happened them in the end?
After Kristallnacht, many Jews decided it was time to leave. Many Jews got their visas late so their only hope was the S.S. St. Louis. The Ship was supposed to take them to Cuba where they would wait till they could go into the U.S. After sailing they received a message to "make all speed." After a burial at sea , two passengers killed themselves and that disturbed the passengers. When they reached Cuba they needed land permits, so people sold them to the passengers, which were fake. Eventually the loophole that allowed these was closed. When the ship and docked police came on the ship and took passengers to be interrogated. Later the passengers had to wait on the ship after a few days max loewe tried to kill himself but was saved and taken to a hospital. The other passengers were not allowed to kill them selves and they had patrols for it. Eventually they had to go back to Germany.

Jewish-owned business destroyed
Jewish-owned business destroyed
Jewish-owned business destroyed


Camps

What different camps did the Nazis establish?
Concentration Camps were actually just one type, there were labor and hard labor camps extermination camps, transit camps and prisoner of war camps between labor and concentration camps were blurred. In the prisoner camps were people who were put in "protective custody.
"

What other criminals were put here?
Even some non-Jews were in these camps, mostly people who opposed political adversaries but also people who nazis considered "asocial elements" such as beggars, tramps and chronic criminals.

Terrors in the camps?
50% of people died from starvation, they were put through labor that exceed their capacity, executions, inhumane living conditions, disease and epidemic, punishment, torture, and criminal medical experiments.
Prisoners in a Concentration camp
Prisoners in a Concentration camp

Prisoners in a Concentration camp


What made resistance in camps hard?
Starvation, the atmosphere of total terror and isolation severally inhabited possibilities of resistance, Barbed and high voltage fences made escape seem impossible (also there were guard towers.) Then they had a strict routine and if it was even slightly infracted they were punished, then there was close survalliance and endless roll calls to count prisoners.

Forms of passive resistance
There were underground groups with the purpose of alleviating other inmates suffering. Some tried to raise the hopes of other inmates. There was a group of polish nurses who would sneak medicine into the camp. Others, outside the camp tried to inform the world about the camps.

Mala Zime + baum?
She carried and stood up for the other inmates. She was one of 101 females considered fit for labor. She was chosen to be a interpreter an was in privileged position. She used her position to help others, she was chosen to be an interpreter and was in a privileged position. She used her position to help others, she fed starving prisoners, encouraged the desperate, she used to carry medicine or messages. On top of all that she saved lives, whenever possible she sent the weak to areas without strict guards. Eventually she planned to escape with a guy but was caught and arrested.

How did Anna Heilman resist the horrors of the Auschwitz?
She played a key role in the obtaining and providing grenades to the men and helped start a uprising.

The Final Solution

What were the Einsatzgruppen? What did they do?

Mobile killing units, were squads composed primarily of German SS and Police personnel. They were Germans that went behind enemy lines to complete missions in Russia. Their main missions were to murder European Jews. In 1941 however, wherever the Einsatzgruppen went, they shot Jewish men, women, and children without regard for age or sex and buried them in mass graves. Some Jewish People had to dig their own graves.
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What was the "Final Solution" to the "Jewish Problem"
As dictated by the Nazis, was extermination. The Jews were no more a problem in the 20th century they had ever been never loss their national identity.

How could working for the Germans be a form of resistance?
Although the Gestapo and the security service suppressed open criticism of th e regime, there was some German opposition to the Nazi state and the regimentation of society that took place through the process of "coordination."

How did some non-Jewish Germans help Jews?
They helped by providing them with transportation out of German occupied territories, they hid them in attics, basements, and in secret rooms. They sometimes even adopted small Jewish children into their families to keep them out of Nazi camps.

Liberation

What evidence of the Holocaust did the Allies find when they liberated the camps?
The allies saw that the Jews were shot for no reason. They were starving and thirsty. They had no clothes, and very sick. The allies found a lot of dead bodies when they liberated camps.

How is surviving the Holocaust an act of resistance?
It was an act of resistance because you survived the Holocaust and you resisted the Germans to survive the Holocaust and got your freedom.

What were displaced persons camps?
More then 250,000 Jewish displaced persons lived in camps and urban centers in Germany, Austria and Italy. These camps were run by allied Authority and unrra. They are camps Jews live in after the Holocaust.

How did the Jewish Brigade help survivors?
They provided them with food, clothing, and assistance immigrating to Palestine. They continued these activities in Belgium, Austria, Germany, and Holland and also assisted the allied authorities in searching for Holocaust survivors.

What was significant about the white rose?
It was made up of students from a university in Munich and their philosophy professor. The group became known for an anonymous leaflet campaign, lasting from June 1942 until February 1943, that called for active opposition to German dictator, Adolf Hitler's Regime

Work Cited


Baurn, Eve N., Exodus to safety, Daily life during the Holocaust, Google book search, books.google.com/books, may 7, 2009.

Beck, Rodgers B, Modern World History . Evanston, Illinois: McDougal Littell, 2005. Print

"The Boycott Of Jewish Businesses." USHMM . 14 May 2009 < http://www.ushmm.org/outreach/
boycott.htm>.


"Deportation from the Netherlands." Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team . 2007. 8 May 2009 < http://HolocaustResearchProject.org >.

“Einsatzgruppen”(mobile killing units), Einsatzgruppen(mobile killing units), USHMM, Washington D.C., http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/article.php?ModuleId=10005130 , 2009

“The Final Solution”, The Final Solution, http://frank.mtsu.edu/~baustin/finsol.html/ , 2009

Frank, mtsu.edu/~baustin/knacht.html, November 9-10, 1938

"The Ghettos." A Teacher . Florida Center for Instruction and Technology. 18 May 2009 < http://fcit.edu/HOLOCAUST/TIMELINE/ghetto.html >.

“Jewish Brigade”, Jewish Brigade, USHMM, Washington D.C., http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/article.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10005275 , 2009



"Nazi's Boycott Jewish Shops." The History Place . 14 May 2009 < http://www.historyplace.com/

“Resistance during the Holocaust”, Resistance during the Holocaust, German center for the study of Jewish resistance, 1999, learn.org/hgp/acti/acti-1998-no-frames/resistance.html



Roleff , Tamara L. The Holocaust: Death Camps . San Diego, California: Greenhaven Press. Inc, 2002. Print.

Rosenberg, Jennifer, “The Tragedy of the S.S. St. Louis”, Tragedy of the S.S. St. Louis, Jewish virtual library, 1998,
www.Jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/St.louis.htmlRuzik_tuzik, "daring to resist:jewish defiance in holocaust." Daring to resist: Jewish defiance in holocaust. Febuary 21 2007. Huliq News. 11 May 2009 <www. huliq.com/11928/daring-to-resist-jewish-defiance-in-holocaust>