Economic, Political, and Social Impacts of World War I

E c o n o m i c

- How did the economy differ in Europe after WWI from before it?
After the war more countries had steel industries, chemical industries and shipping fleets, making their economy better. In other areas, there was hyperinflation making their economies worse. Unemployment reached record highs. (DeLong)
- How did WWI change the industry of countries in Europe and the United States?
Before the Great War, many economies were dug into a major hole. Countries needed factories to help them produce weapons and goods for the war. Contracts were offered to companies to produce weapons. These companies prospered because of the contracts offered to them. Welland's industry was in a huge slump when the war broke out. The companies were offered contracts and in 1917, the Welland Board of Trade recorded a 50% increase in industrial production.
- What happened to factories and production after the war?
After the war much production stopped because people couldn't buy goods. (DeLong)

- How did total war affect the economy?
Total war greatly deteriorated the economy. Since countries put all of their resources into the war effort, they didn't have many resources such as food for their own citizens. Total war led to rationing, which meant that no one could buy a surplus of an item that was needed for the war.(Modern World History)

P o l i t i c a l

- What new types of governments emerged from WWI?
After the war, Adolf Hitler came to power and Hitler was a man who wanted to control a dictatorship in Germany. As he came to power he started to destroy peoples lives which will later on lead to World War 2.(Chapter 15 Section 3 in MWH Book)
- How did the boundaries of countries change and how did new counties form?
The Treaty of Saint-Germain
The Treaty of Saint-Germain was a treaty signed by the allies and the new republic of Austria. This treaty also contained the Covenant of the League of Nations. The treaty dissolved the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It also gave independence to Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland, and Yugoslavia. The treaty also said that Austria cannot enter a political or economic union with Germany without the agreement of the council of the League of Nations.
Treaty of Trianon
The Treaty of Trianon reduced the size of Hungary by about two thirds. It gave Transylvania to Romania. Czechoslovakia received Slovakia and Ruthenia. Yugoslavia gained Croatia, Slavoria, and the western section of Banat. Austria gained Burgenland, but the city of Scopron was given to Hungary.
Treaty of Neuilly
Bulgaria ceded part of Western Thrace to Greece. South Dobruja was confirmed in Romanian possession. Bulgaria's army was limited to 20,000 men.
Treaty of Sévres
This treaty was signed between the Ottoman Empire and the Allies (excluding the United States and Russia). Turkey gave up part of eastern Thrace and some Aegean islands to Greece. Dodecanese and Rhodes went to Italy. The Allies obtained control of the Turkish economy. (Treaty of Versailles)

Europe Before WWI (Google Images: WWI Maps, found on May 12, 2009)
Europe Before WWI (Google Images: WWI Maps, found on May 12, 2009)

- What new alliances/friendships came from WWI?
Weimar-Soviet Alliance
This was an alliance between Russia and Germany made after WWI. German citizens were able to work in aircraft factories and gas plants. German tank commanders and pilots were also able to train with the Russians in Russia. (
“Weimar-Soviet Alliance, 1920s”)
League of Nations - As of January 10, 1920:
Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Colombia, France, Greece, Guatemala, India, Japan, Liberia, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Persia, Poland, Italy Canada, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, China, United Kingdom, and a few others. Some countries dropped out of the league and others joined later on. (Strollo, Phillip J.)
- Who represented the major countries at the Palace of Versailles after WWI?
After WWI, there was a conference at the Palace of Versailles to determine the fate of Germany and the rest of the world. The "Big Four" included Woodrow Wilson of the USA, Georges Clemenceau of France, David Lloyd George of Great Britain, and Vittorio Orlando of Italy. (Modern World History)
- After WWI, most of European nations had what type of government, if only temporary?
After WWI most countries in Europe had republics. Before the war there was only three republics in Europe but after it was over there was fourteen.

Europe After WWI (Google Images: WII Maps, found on May 12, 2009)
Europe After WWI (Google Images: WII Maps, found on May 12, 2009)
- Who was Nietzsche and his emphasis on ancient heroic values?
Nietzsche was a German philosopher who believed that Christianity didn't have a basis on everyday life. Nietzsche's ideas came from after the war. He came up with the idea that "God is dead" because he was murdered by the Christians that didn't believe in him anymore. Many people stopped believing in God because they couldn't believe what had happened in the war. Why has God let this happen? Nietzsche believed that society would reach its highest potential if the people worked together. (Bradley) (McKay 915) (Merrian Webster's 810 and 397)
- What 3 core beliefs of Nietzche could be used for in extreme nationalism(fascism/nationalism)?
Christianity: Hitler wanted to become "lord of the earth" since Nietzsche said that "God is dead."
Conformism: Hitler wanted to make a master race. Conformism means to blend in with the rules, customs, or styles of groups.
Nationalism: Nietzsche said that everyone must work together for society to function at its highest. Hitler wanted everyone to help him form the maser race. The master race will function at its highest potential. (Ramsland)
- What was the first central power to fall in WWI? How did they fall?
Bulgaria was the first of the central powers to fall. The people of Bulgaria, suffering from economic hardships, soon started to dislike the war. People were also influenced by the Russian Revolution. The Russian Revolution gave them anti-war and anti-monarchists ideas and soon the people started to revolt and the government officials resigned and a republic was set up. (Stokesbury, James page 319)
- What were the new roles and rights for women?
Thousands of women took men's places in areas such as factories, offices and shops. Women helped build tanks and munitions. They also plowed fields, paved streets, and ran hospitals. Along with that they kept troops supplied with food, clothing and weapons. They showed the world that they were capable of achieving tasks that men were able to. (Modern World History)
- How did women achieve their rights?
On June 19, 1917, the House of Commons voted by 385 to 55 to accept the Representation of the People Bill's women's suffrage clause. (Trueman)
- What happened to all three of the Autocratic countries after WWI?
After the war the autocratic powers, who joined the war to gain territory, were all destroyed and replaced by new forms of government. (Stokesbury, James page 319)


S o c i a l

- How did WWI affect the working class and their working conditions?
The production of automobiles, airplanes, radios, and chemicals increased greatly after WWI. Mass production of these products and the eight hour work day helped contribute to the stimulations of the economies in Europe. The European countries wanted to pay off the Allies so they started to print more money that was needed. This led to a huge inflation of money in Central Powers countries such as Germany. The middle class soon experienced rough financial times. (Karpilovsky)
- What leisure activities came out of the war?
The use of bicycles, automobiles, movies and radios also became more popular because of the increase in technology after the war. (
Fischer, Claude)
- What types of classes prospered from WWI?
The class that suffered the most was the middle class because of inflation. There was inflation because the central powers printed money to pay off the Allies.
- What were the after effects of World War 1?

After World War 1 the economy was strong and the citizens' lives became much better. They had more time to relax and they were able to get credit to buy things. The technology also got better due to the economy getting better.( )
- What happened to England's view on European superiority after WWI?
After the war was over Britain no longer thought they had the right to rule "uncivilized" lands. The British began to wonder how much more superior they were after witnessing the "great" European nations create the horrors of WWI. (Stokesbury, James page 321-322)
- How did the camera develop to capture images of post WWI devastation?
The type of camera that was invented was a roll-film camera. In the camera there are two layers of the photo. The first layer was the image and the second layer was on the back of the image and that was where the photographers would write down information down about the image.(The Evolution of the Camera)

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- Explain Cubism:
Cubism is a non-objective approach to painting developed originally in France by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque around 1906. This is characterized by emphasizing the process of construction, of creating a pictorial rhythm, and converting the represented forms into the essential geometric shapes: the cube, the sphere, the cylinder, and the cone.(Boguslawski, Alexander)

Popova: Two Figures
Popova: Two Figures

- What is the name of the art movement that incorporates the concept of unconscious mind (dreamlike)?
Surrealism is the expression unconventional thoughts on the canvas coming right from the subconscious mind. By understanding how to use the subconscious mind, painters would ignore the censorship of logic and would write down everything that came to their mind.(Lobo, Trinity)
- What popular musical artists were there after WWI?
King Oliver, Louis Armstrong, Kid Ory, Duke Ellington, and Jelly Roll Morton were some popular jazz artists in the postwar years. (Pittsburgh State University English Department)

King Oliver's Creole Jazz Band (Pittsburgh State University English Department)
King Oliver's Creole Jazz Band (Pittsburgh State University English Department)

- What is the musical style that captured a sense of the new freedom of the postwar years?
Jazz was the musical style that captured a sense of the new freedom of the postwar years mainly in the U.S. (Drowne, Kathleen and Patrick Huber p. 187)
- What was the impact of WWI on Literature and people's beliefs on old ideas?
After the Great War, many books were published about the war so it wasn't forgotten. Books were written in detail and it got the people to realize what it was really like on the fronts. Also, many books were published on philosophy and different ways to think. Other writings were published to help overcome the tragedies in Europe and get the countries back on track. (French Literature)
- What ideas were the people rejecting and what ideas were they bringing in?
The people that didn't fight on the front thought that the war wasn't all that bad. Many people thought that the war wasn't bloody. Many teenagers enlisted with their friends and eventually died with their friends. The truth is that nine million soldiers died. Many of the people were shocked when video's of the war came out showing the horrifying footage of a mutated soldier. Books were also published to create a picture in the readers mind about what went on during the war. The people's minds were completely changed. (PBS)
- What is the name of the philosophy that rejects the idea of universal values?
Existentialism (McKay)

*References:

- Batchelor, Bob. American Popular Culture through History: The 1900s. Westport. Greenwood Press. 2002.
- Beck, Roger, et al. Modern World History Patterns of Interaction. McDougal Littel, 2005.
- Bradley, Derek. “Nietzsche’s Superman” Michigan State University 5 May 2009. https://www.msu.edu/user/bradle45/nietzsche.htm

- Boguslawski, Alexander. "Cubism" Rollins College. 1998. 5 May 2009. http://tars.rollins.edu/Foreign_Lang/Russian/cubism.html
- DeLong, Bradford. “Slouching Towards Utopia?: The Economic History of the Twentieth Century.” University of California at Berkeley and NBER. 2 Mar. 1997. 6 May 2009. “http://econ161.berkeley.edu/tceh/Slouch_Restoring11.html"

- Drowne, Kathleen and Patrick Huber. American Popular Culture Through History 1920s. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. 2004
- Duffy, Michael. “Front page.” First World War 2000. 5 May 2009.
http://www.firstworldwar.com/
- "Effects of WWI on Welland Industry" Welland Industry. 5 May 2009. http://www.welland.library.on.ca/industry/War/Effects%20of%20WWI%20on%20Welland%20Industry.htm
- Fischer, Claude. “Changes in Leisure Activities, 1890-1940” Questia. 1994. 7 May 2009.
http://www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst;jsessionid=KKYQRhX7VzqbCJRHk38cmV924tFmS298nLrBKxR8HVFCLzCQQ1Xh!1173087732!-1633707706?docId=5000201129
- “French Literature” Encyclopedia Britannica. 10 Oct. 2006. 7 May 2009. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/219228/French-literature/22577/The-impact-of-World-War-I
- Karpilovsky, Suzanne. "The Great War, Effects."IB History Pages" 1996. 6 May 2009. http://www.cusd.chico.k12.ca.us/~bsilva/projects/great_war/effects.htm
- Lobo, Trinity. "Surrealism" Buzzle. 19 February 2004. 6 May 2009. http://www.buzzle.com/editorials/2-19-2004-50746.asp
- "A World War I Photo Essay" Modern American Poetry. 5 May 2009. http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/ww1/photoessay.htm
- McKay, John. A History of Western Society. New York. Houghton Mifflin Company. 2008.
- Merrian Webster's Encyclopedia of Literature. Springfield.1995.

- PBS. The Great War and the Shaping of the 20th Century. "Slaughter." 1996. London, England.
- Pittsburgh State University English Department. “Jazz & Blues: 1920s-30s” Pittsburgh State University. 19 Aug. 2008. 12 May 2009.
http://faculty.pittstate.edu/~knichols/jazzpoems2.html#jazzers
- Ramsland, Katherine. “Existential Murder: The Nietzsche Syndrome” TruTV. 2008. 8 May 2009. http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/notorious_murders/famous/nietzsche_crimes/7.html
- Stokesbury, James. A Short History of World War One. New York: Harper Collins. 1981
- Drowne, Kathleen and Patrick Huber. American Popular Culture Through History 1920s.
Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. 2004
- Strollo, Phillip J. "League of Nations Timeline." The World at War 4 June 2000. 5 May 2009.http://europeanhistory.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?zi=1/XJ/Ya&sdn=europeanhistory&zu=http%3A%2F%2Fworldatwar.net%2Ftimeline
- “Treaty of Versailles: In World War One” Infoplease. 2007. 8 May 2009. http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0861782.html

- Trueman, Chris. “World War One and Women.” History Learning Site. 5 May 2009. http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/world_war_one_and_women.htm
- “Weimar-Soviet Alliance, 1920s” Far Outliers. 15 Aug. 2006. May 9 2009. http://faroutliers.blogspot.com/2006/08/weimarsoviet-alliance-1920s.html
-"
The Evolution of the Camera" Photoclub. 12 Sept. 2008. 7 May 2009. http://photoclub.canadiangeographic.ca/blogs/close-ups/archive/2008/09/12/timeline-the-evolution-of-the-camera.aspx